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DOCX Standard Scientific Style

DOCX Standard Scientific Style badge showing cascadability (1 styleguide capturing enough metadata to express the originality of any journal)

'DOCX Standard Scientific Style' (DS3) is a style guide that encourages authors of scholarly articles in any discipline not to worry about the appearance of their document and instead to concentrate on giving it structure and making it accessible.

This guide is written so that readers unfamiliar with Microsoft Word's advanced features, such as styles, hyperlinks, multi-part figures, bookmarks, and cross-references, can follow this guide without having to consult any other source of documentation. The best practices recommended in this style guide apply to most documents written with Microsoft Word and may already be familiar to the reader.

The only requirement of 'DOCX Standard Scientific Style' (DS3) is to follow the Styles and Sections section of this guide to add titles, sections, and subsections.

From there, browse sections of the style guide from the table of contents as needed to add tables, figures, equations, code, text boxes, citations, footnotes and endnotes, supporting information, and more.

Documents written in 'DOCX Standard Scientific Style' (DS3) are automatically convertible to HTML and JSON-LD / schema.org ensuring the interoperable exchange, discoverability, and long-term preservation of accessible scholarly articles.

Examples

Style Guide

When preparing a document, it can be helpful to display automatically inserted elements such as captions, citations, and cross-references with a shaded background. This can be achieved by setting the Field shading option to Always (on a Mac, go to the global Word menu, select Preferences and click on View. On Windows, go to the File tab of the ribbon, select Options and click on Advanced).

Omit elements such as line and page numbers, running heads and running titles, article statistics (e.g., number of tables, figures, and words) and table of contents.

Be sure to check that the document is saved as DOCX and not in compatibility mode (the Microsoft Word title bar will include '[Compatibility Mode]' if so). If the document is in compatibility mode, convert the document or start in a new DOCX file before proceeding.

Microsoft Word does not automatically update links and field codes (e.g., captions, cross-references, or citations) in the document. For instance, figure caption numbers do not automatically update when figures are moved. Field codes can be updated one at a time by right-clicking (or control-clicking) on the field and selecting the Update Field option.

Styles and Sections

Styles provide a way to identify the elements of a document. Apply 'Styles' to identify manuscript title, short title, sections, subsections, and other document elements such as block quotes or lists.

Sections and Headings

Sections are created by giving them a heading with a specific heading level. To create a heading:

  1. Enter the heading name (title of the section), e.g., 'Introduction'.
  2. Select the title text.
  3. From the Home tab of the ribbon, click on the Style corresponding to the appropriate section heading level (Heading 2 here).

    Heading styles start with Heading 1 for the manuscript title and increase with each level of nesting. For example, sections within the document, such as 'Introduction' are Heading 2 and sections within sections (subsections) are Heading 3, etc. See below for suggested heading names (section titles) and corresponding Heading Styles.

Apply built-in Heading 2 style to section heading

When possible, use the following heading names (section titles) and corresponding Heading Styles for common sections of scholarly article:

Manuscript Title
Heading 1
Manuscript Short Title or Subtitle
Subtitle
Authors
Heading 2
Contributors
Heading 2
Affiliations
Heading 2
Abstract
Heading 2
Short Abstract
Heading 2
Structured Abstract
Heading 2
Background
Heading 3
Methods
Heading 3
Results
Heading 3
Conclusion
Heading 3
Keywords
Heading 2
Introduction
Heading 2
subsection
Heading 3
Materials and Methods
Heading 2
subsection
Heading 3
Results
Heading 2
subsection
Heading 3
Conclusion
Heading 2
subsection
Heading 3
Funding
Heading 2
Acknowledgments
Heading 2
Disclosure
Heading 2
Supporting Information
Heading 2
Bibliography
Heading 2

If multiple abstracts are present (such as 'Short Abstract', 'Structured Abstract', 'Graphical Abstract', 'Editor's Summary', 'Executive Summary', 'Highlights', 'Synopsis', 'Key Points', 'Teaser', ...) enter them each in their own section labeled with a Heading 2 style. When possible prefer the header name: 'Abstract', 'Short Abstract', 'Graphical Abstract' and 'Structured Abstract'.

When possible, avoid adding a dedicated 'Author Contributions' section and instead express author contributions as footnotes next to the author list following the instructions for author contributions and for resource metadata.

When possible, avoid adding a dedicated 'Author Notes' (or similar) section and instead provide a dedicated 'Disclosure' section, following the instruction of this guide.

When possible, do not list funding information in the 'Acknowledgements' section. Instead provide a dedicated 'Funding' section following the instruction of this guide.

A Document Map can be displayed to help to quickly navigate among the different sections (represented by their headings) of the document.

To display a Document Map:

  1. Go the the View tab of the ribbon.
  2. Check the Navigation Pane option.
  3. In the side bar that just appeared, click on the Document Map tab.
navigation view

Paragraphs

Format paragraphs with the Normal style (this is the default style).

Apply normal styles to body text.

Be sure to check that blank lines do not contain styles (clicking on a blank line should highlight the Normal style in the Home ribbon).

Strong and Emphasized text

For text with strong importance, apply the Strong style. This is Strong.

For text with emphatic stress, as well as for variable names and scientific names, apply the Emphasis. This is Emphasis

Strong and Emphasis styles can also be added directly with the Bold B (for strong) and italic I (for emphasis) button in the Home tab of the ribbon.

apply strong style with bold tool

Be sure to only apply the Strong and Emphasis styles when semantically appropriate and not for visual purposes alone.

Quotes

Inline Quotes

Wrap inline quotes in quotation marks ("") directly in the text flow.

Everything is deeply intertwingled

inline quote example
Block Quotes
    1. Start block quotes on a new line, and add the quote source (if any) on the next line starting with a dash (en dash , em dash or hyphen -).
    2. Select the entire quote (including the source)
    3. Apply the Quote style (in the Home tab of the ribbon) to the selection.
    apply the quote style to block quotations and sources
  1. The block quote is now properly styled.

    So, the point was to be able to have a medium that would record all the connections and all the structures and all the thoughts that paper could not. Since the computer could hold any structure in any form, this was the way to go.

    Ted Nelson
    styled block quote

Lists

To create a list:

  1. Place the cursor on a new line and start a new list either by clicking the bulleted list icon (for unordered list) or the numbered list icon (for ordered list) on the Home tab of the ribbon.

    Create a list using the bulleted list icon
  2. Add the list items.
    add items to the list

After having completed the list, be sure to clear the bullet points, numbers, or the paragraph list style by selecting the Normal style from the styles pane (in the Home tab of the ribbon).

Footnotes and Endnotes

Insert footnotes and endnotes

Insert footnotes or endnotes using the built-in Footnote and Endnote features of Microsoft Word:

  1. Place the cursor after the character in the text where the footnote or endnote will be inserted.
    The cursor is placed in the text where a footnote is to be added
  2. Go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Footnote or Insert Endnote.
    The built in insert footnote tool is used to insert a footnote
  3. Type the footnote or endnote text after the automatically inserted footnote or endnote number (or symbol).

    Do not type any body text below the footnotes or endnotes. Only footnotes or endnotes text should appear below the footnote or endnote section.

    A footnote is  created at the bottom of the page and footnote text is added

Refer to the same footnote or endnote more than once

To refer to an existing footnote or endnote more than once, use the built-in Cross-reference feature of Microsoft Word:

    1. Place the cursor where the reference to an existing footnote or endnote needs to be added.
    2. Go to the Insert tab the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. In the new Cross-reference dialogue window, set the Reference type to Footnote for footnotes and to Endnote for endnotes.
    4. Under Insert reference to, select Footnote number (formatted)' for footnotes and Endnote number (formatted)' for endnotes.
    5. Under For which footnote for footnotes and For which endnote for endnotes, select the footnote or endnote to insert from the list.
    6. Make sure to leave the insert as hyperlink option checked.
    7. Click on Insert.
    insert footnote as cross-reference
  1. A new reference to the same footnote or endnote is automatically inserted.
    a new reference to the same footnote is automatically inserted

Authors, contributors, and affiliations

Create structured lists of authors, contributors, and affiliations and bookmark them so that cross-references can be used to link authors and contributors to their affiliations and mention of authors, contributors and affiliations elsewhere in the manuscript (funding section, disclosure, etc.).

Authors and contributors list

  1. Below the manuscript title, create a new section with a Heading 2 style named: 'Authors'.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the authors section heading
  2. List the primary author(s) below the section heading using:

    • A numbered list if authors must be listed by strict order of contribution importance.
    • A bulleted list otherwise.

    Authors can be persons or organizations and must be formatted following the person format or the organization format defined below.

    Sullivan, James (Peter, Robert) "Prof. James P Sullivan, MD"

    Additional information regarding author contributions can be provided as author contribution footnotes (see section below) or with a specific section for secondary contributors (see step further down).

    Add author information following the format guidelines
  3. Bookmark the 'display name' of each person and the acronym (or name) of each organization so that cross-reference to persons and organizations can be made easily.

    1. Highlight the author 'display name' or the organization name (or acronym).
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Bookmark.
    3. Fill in the bookmark Name (prefer short mnemonic name as the bookmark name will be used to identify the bookmark when inserting a cross-reference).
    4. Click on Add.
    insert a bookmark on the display name of the first author
  4. Hyperlink authors to their personal websites or ORCID profile and organizations to their URLs:

    • Highlight the text to be linked.
    • Go to Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    • In the Web Page or File section of the dialogue window, type the URL in the Address field.
    • Click on OK.
    Use the built in insert hyperlink tool to link author name to a ORCID ID
  5. If secondary contributors need to be distinguished:

    1. Below the 'Author' section, create a new section with a Heading 2 style named: 'Contributors'.
    2. List the contributors(s) below the section heading using either a bulleted or an ordered list depending if the contributors are listed by strict order of contribution importance. Format contributors using the person format defined above for persons, and the organization format for organizations. Bookmark and hyperlink persons and organization as indicated in the previous steps for authors.
    • Engelbart, Douglas (Carl) "Douglas Carl Engelbart"
    • Microscopy Facility < Department of Anatomy and Neurology < School of Medicine < Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) - Richmond, VA, USA
    Add contributing author information following the format guidelines

Affiliation list

  1. Below the 'Contributors' section, create a new section with Heading 2 style named: 'Affiliations'.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the contributors section heading
  2. List the affiliations associated with authors and contributors under the new section with a bulleted list. Be sure to only include each affiliation once in the list (e.g., if two authors are at the same institution, only create one entry for the institution under the 'Affiliations' list).

    Format affiliations with the organization format described earlier.

    Department of Biology < New York University (NYU) - New York, NY, USA

    Add affiliation information following the format guidelines
  3. Create a bookmark for each affiliation. These bookmarks will be needed to associate authors with affiliations and to refer to the organization elsewhere in the document (for instance in the disclosure statements).

    1. Highlight the short name of the affiliation (or any part of the organization trail).
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Bookmark.
    3. Fill in the Bookmark Name (prefer short mnemonic name as the bookmark name will be used to identify the bookmark when inserting a cross-reference).
    4. Click on Add.
    bookmark the superscripted number using the insert bookmark tool
  4. Hyperlink affiliations to their URLs:

    1. Highlight the organization unit name to be hyperlinked.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    3. Type the URL in the Address field.
    4. Click on OK.
    Use the built in insert hyperlink tool to link organization URL

Cross-reference authors, contributors, and affiliations

  1. Cross-reference individual affiliations for each author (or contributor):

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the first author bullet point.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. In the Cross-reference dialogue window:

      • Set the Reference type to bookmark.
      • Set Insert reference to to Bookmark text.
      • Under For which bookmark, select the bookmark to insert from the list of bookmark names.
      • Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
      • Click on Insert.
    use the built-in insert cross reference tool to insert the bookmark text associated with an affiliation after an author
  2. The bookmark text is now inserted in the author list, next to the author linking the author to its affiliation.
    The superscripted number corresponding to an affiliation appears after the author's information

Contact information

Provide contact information (email, social media, telephone, fax, and address) for the corresponding author(s) in a footnote following the contact format (defined at the end of the section).

  1. Create the footnote:

    1. Place the cursor after author and affiliation information of the corresponding author
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Footnote.
    3. A footnote will appear at the bottom of the page.
    insert footnote
  2. Add the corresponding author email address to the footnote:

    1. Start by writting Email:
    2. Insert the corresponding author email address with the built-in Hyperlink feature of Microsoft Word:

      1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
      2. In the Insert Hyperlink dialogue window:

        1. Select the Email Address tab.
        2. Type the email address in the Email Address field and edit the Text to Display field.
        3. Click on OK.
    3. Terminate the statement with a period (.).

    The hyperlinked email address is now inserted in the document.

    Email: james@example.com.

    add email address and hyperlink it for corresponding author
  3. Add relevant social media profiles and online persona (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, GitHub, etc):

    1. Enter the name of the social media (e.g., 'Twitter') followed by a colon (:) followed by the social media handle (Twitter: @jsullivan).
    2. Highlight the text to be hyperlinked.
    3. Got to Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    4. Enter the URL in the Address field.
    5. Click on OK.
    6. Terminate the statement with a period (.).

    The social media information are now complete.

    Twitter: @jsullivan.

    add social media
  4. Add a telephone number (if any) and hyperlink it:

    1. Start with Tel: followed by the telephone number (Tel: +1-212-998-8200).
    2. Hyperlink the telephone number:

      1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
      2. In the Address box, add the prefix 'tel:' followed by the phone number.
      3. Click on OK.
    3. Terminate the statement with a period (.).

    The phone number is now correctly inserted.

    Tel: +1-212-998-8200.

    add phone

    Note: A fax number (if any) can be added in the same manner as a telephone. Fax: +1-212-995-4015. Fax numbers can be hyperlinked by adding a 'fax:' prefix in the 'Address' box.

  5. Add a postal address (if relevant) starting with Address: followed by a postal address and a period (.).

    Address: Department of Biology, New York University, 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012, USA.

    add address

Author contributions

Add information on the nature of author contributions (e.g., 'authors contributed equally', 'senior author', 'conceived and designed the experiments', 'wrote the Introduction' etc.) in footnotes, next to the relevant authors and contributors.

  1. Place the cursor next to the author or contributor where the contribution footnote should be inserted.
    place cursor at the end of author's name information
  2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Footnote.
    insert footnote using built-in tool
  3. Type the footnote text after the automatically inserted footnote number (or symbol).

    Do not type any body text below the footnote section.

    Type the footnote text after the automatically inserted number
  4. If author contributions are to specific parts of the manuscript such as bookmarked text, captions, or section headings, use the built-in Cross-reference feature of Microsoft Word to reference the relevant document part.

    1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    2. In the Cross-reference dialogue window:

      1. Set Reference type to Heading.
      2. Under Insert reference to, select the text to be inserted .
      3. Under For which heading, select the heading to insert from the list of heading names.
      4. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
      5. Click on Insert.

    The selected text will be automatically inserted in the footnote text.

    2 Wrote the Introduction.

    insert cross reference to a section
  5. To apply an existing footnote to more than one author, or contributor, cross-reference the existing footnote to the relevant authors or contributors:

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the author's name and affiliation information where the reference to an existing footnote needs to be added (here Prof. James P Sullivan will be marked as senior author [footnote number 3] along with David Lloyd George [already marked as senior author]).
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. In the Cross-reference dialogue window:

      1. Set Reference type to Footnote.
      2. Under Insert reference to, select Footnote number (formatted) .
      3. Under For which footnote, select the footnote to insert from the list of existing footnotes.
      4. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
      5. Click on Insert ( the footnote number 3 ['Senior authors'] will now also be applied to Prof. James P Sullivan).
    insert footnote as cross-reference

Keywords

  1. Create a new section with a heading (Heading 2 style) named: 'Keywords'.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the Keywords section heading
  2. List keywords in a bulleted list or ordered list, depending on whether the order of keywords matters.

    Be sure to only include one keyword per bullet point.

    A bulleted list of keywords is added after the section heading

License

  1. Create a new section with a heading (Heading 2 style) named: 'License'.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the license section heading
  2. Specify the license:

    • When possible, use a license identifier taken from the SPDX license list (e.g., CC0-4.0).
    • If a license identifier cannot be found, use the license name.
    • If the license does not have a name, include the license text.
    • In case of multiple licenses, separate them with semicolons (;).
    Add license information
  3. Hyperlink the license identifier (or name) to the URL of the license (if any).

    CC-BY-4.0

    If a license does not have a URL, include the license text (if any).

    hyperlink it to the license URL

Abbreviations

  1. Create a new section with a heading (Heading 2 style) named: 'Abbreviations'.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the Abbreviations section heading
  2. Create an unordered (bulleted) list of abbreviations under the new section heading, separating the abbreviation from its definition using a colon (:).

    e.g., LCARS: Library Computer Access/Retrieval System

    Be sure to only include one abbreviation per bullet point.

    A bulleted list of abbreviations is added after the section heading
  3. Create a bookmark for each abbreviation:

    1. Select the abbreviation text (e.g., 'LCARS').
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Bookmark.
    3. Set the Bookmark name (e.g., 'LCARS'). Note: bookmark names must begin with a letter, can contain numbers and cannot include spaces, but can use underscores to separate words). Repeat for all bullet points under 'Abbreviations'.
    4. Click on Add.
    A bookmark is inserted with the text of each abbreviation, e.g., 'LCARS'
  4. Cross-reference abbreviations in the document:

    1. Place the cursor in the document where an abbreviation needs to be added.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. In the Cross-reference dialogue window:

      1. Set the Reference type to Bookmark.
      2. Set Insert reference to to Bookmark text.
      3. Under For which bookmark, select the bookmark to insert from the list of bookmark names.
      4. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
      5. Click on Insert.
    Place the cursor in the document and locate the bookmark in the insert cross-reference menu
  5. The bookmark text is now inserted in the document (and linked to the abbreviation definition).
    The bookmark text 'LCARS' is inserted in the document.

Tables

Simple table layout

A simple table layout is adapted for tables containing:

  • An optional header row (first row of the table).
  • An optional header column (first column of the table).
  • An optional summary row (last row of the table).
Average number of errors made using Microsoft Word or Latex.
Type of Errors Word Latex
Grammatical 6.9 9.2
Typos 9.7 17.1
Total 16.6 26.3

To create a table following the simple table layout:

  1. Insert a new table:

    1. Click where the table should be inserted.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Table.
    3. Select one of the possible options from the drop-down menu to specify the Number of rows and Number of columns of the table.
    insert a 3 column by 4 row table using built in insert table tool
  2. Use the options available in the Table Design tab of the ribbon to specify (when needed):

    • A Header Row (first row).
    • A First Column of header cells.
    • A summary row (last row, labeled Total Row in Microsoft Word).
    • A table design. Grid Table 5 Dark is recommended as it improves the visibility of the table elements (header row, first column, total row) selected.
    select a table design and tick all the required table heading elements
  3. Fill in the table headers cells and data.

    fill in data

Table caption

Insert a caption for the table using the built-in Caption feature of Microsoft Word:

    1. Go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Caption.
    2. In the Caption dialogue window:

      1. Select the caption label. When possible, use the value Table, however, if a custom label is required (such as 'Matrix', 'Summary', or 'Data Table'), create a new custom label by clicking on the New Label... button. The created custom label will be available to reuse later.
      2. Add the caption content (if any) in the Caption field after the pre-populated label and number (e.g. 'Table 1'). Note that the number is automatically generated and corresponds to the order of appearance of the table in the document.

        The Caption field may truncate the content of a long caption. In this case, click on OK to insert the caption (truncated) and add the remaining text directly from the document (see next step).

      3. Click on OK
    Use built-in insert caption too add a table caption
  1. The Table now has a caption.
    Insert table
  2. To add (or edit) caption content directly from the document:

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the inserted caption and add the required additional caption text.
    2. If the caption text (or part of it) is no longer in the Caption style (as it is the case for 'of Xanadu growth' in the example figure), select the entire caption, and apply the Caption style (see Apply Styles). Caption text can lose the Caption style when content is copied and pasted from other content, or new lines are inserted.

    A table long caption is added above the table
  3. Add metadata about the table (authors, contributors, license, sources, etc.) at the end of the caption following the instructions defined in the resource metadata section.

    Author:Prof. James P Sullivan, MD (NYU). Data from: Perez et al. (2012, table 1). Code from: Supporting Code 1.

    add credit line to table caption

Table footnotes

Table footnotes provide additional information on the table contents. Use the built-in Footnote feature to add footnotes to tables and use the built-in Cross-reference feature to insert repeated references to existing footnotes.

Add table footnotes using the built-in Footnote feature of Microsoft Word:

  1. Place the cursor after the text in the table where a footnote should be inserted (here after the cell value located at the second row and second column).
    place cursor where footnote needs to be added
  2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Footnote.
    insert footnote
  3. Type the footnote text after the automatically inserted footnote number or symbol (here 1).

    1 p-value < 0.05, statistically significant.

    Do not type any body text below the footnotes. Only footnote text should appear below the footnote section.

    type footnote text

To reference an existing footnote, use the built-in Cross-reference feature of Microsoft Word:

    1. Place the cursor after the text in the table where a reference to an existing footnote needs to be added (here a reference to the footnote 1 will be inserted after the content of the cell located in the third column of the third row).
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. In the new Cross-reference dialogue window:

      1. Set the Reference type to Footnote
      2. Set Insert reference to to Footnote number (formatted) so that footnote numbers are inserted as superscripts (e.g., 1).
      3. Under For which footnote, select the footnote to reference (1 here).
      4. Make sure to leave the insert as hyperlink option checked.
      5. Click on Insert.
    Insert repeated footnotes as cross-reference
  1. A new reference to the footnote number, or symbol (here 1) is now present in the table.
    The cross-referenced footnote appears in the table

Avoid using stylistic elements in the table content, and use table footnotes instead to add specific semantic to table values. For instance, instead of indicating special table values by coloring them in green, add footnotes next to these values, and specify the values' special meaning in the footnote text (see figure above).

Complex table layout

Table with multiple sections

Tables with multiple sections are a common pattern in scholarly communication. These tables deviate from the simple table layout because they usually have:

  • More complex table headers, often spanning across multiple contiguous rows and containing merged cells.
  • Multiple sections within the table body.
Social determinants of Anchilles fever vaccination
Variables Age 65-79 years Age ≥ 80 years
Vaccinated % SD Vaccinated % SD
Traveler 49.3 3.2 60.2 2.1
Gender
Male 55.9 5.1 60 7.3
Female 54.8 2.8 59.3 0.5
Income
Low 45.2 6.3 49.2 6.2
Medium 46.3 2.3 50.1 0.3
High 54.2 2.2 57.4 4.6
Sample size 875 932

To create a table with multiple sections:

  1. Insert a new table:

    1. Click where the table should be inserted.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Table.
    3. Select one of the possible options from the drop-down menu to specify the Number of rows and Number of columns of the table.
    insert a table using built in insert table tool
  2. Use the options available in the Table Design tab of the ribbon to specify (when needed):

    • A Header Row (first row).
    • A First Column of header cells.
    • A summary row (last row, labeled Total Row in Microsoft Word).
    • A table design. Grid Table 5 Dark is recommended as it improves the visibility of the table elements (header row, first column, total row) selected.
    select a table design and tick all the required table heading elements
  3. To create multiple contiguous table header rows:

    1. Select all the rows that need to become header rows.
    2. Click on the Repeat header rows button from the Layout tab of the ribbon.

    If a table design was selected, the header styles and background shading will be applied to all the header row cells.

    repeat header rows
  4. Merge cells that span multiple rows or columns:

    1. Highlight the cells to be merged.
    2. Click on the Merge cells button in the Layout tab of the ribbon (or right click and select Merge cells).
    merge cell
  5. Add sections to the table by indenting the headings of the first column:

    For instance, here, the indentation in front of 'Male' and 'Female' marks their belonging to the 'Gender' section.

    Gender
        Male
        Female
                            

    • To indent a heading, use the increase indent button (in the Home tab of the ribbon).

      If additional levels of subheadings are required, use multiple indents (clicking several time on the increase indent button).

    • For sections with headers that span multiple columns (like 'Gender' here), merge cells across multiple columns (following the instructions of the previous step).
    merge cell
Multiple summary rows

Some tables require more than one summary row at the end of the table (for instance to specify sample sizes, averages, standard deviations, minima, maxima, median values, etc.).

To include multiple summary rows:

  1. Insert a new table:

    1. Click where the table should be inserted.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Table.
    3. Select one of the possible options from the drop-down menu to specify the Number of rows and Number of columns of the table.
    insert a table using built in insert table tool
    1. Use the options available in the Table Design tab of the ribbon to specify (when needed):

      • A Header Row (first row).
      • A First Column of header cells.
      • A summary row (last row, labeled Total Row in Microsoft Word).
      • A table design. Grid Table 5 Dark is recommended as it improves the visibility of the table elements (header row, first column, total row) selected.
    2. Add table data.
    select a table design and tick all the required table heading elements
  2. If more than one summary row is needed at the end of the table (here the last two rows should be part of the summary rows):

    1. Select the last row in the table body (before the first summary row).
    2. In the Table Design tab of the ribbon:

      • Select the double border line style ().
      • Apply the double border line style to the bottom border only (click on the Borders control and select Bottom border from the drop-down menu).

    Summary rows can only be added as one contiguous block of cells and the end of the table.

    add bottom border to the table body
  3. A double line border () is now present in the table, separating the summary rows from the rest of the table.

    Optionally, a background shading and font color can be applied to all cells in the summary rows to better differentiate them from the rest of the table:

    1. Select the cells in the summary row to be styled.
    2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, set the font color and background shading to match existing summary row cells (white, and grey here).
    style summary cells
  4. The table is now complete,
    complete table
Table with complex header cells

Tables with complex header cells refer to tables with header cells that are not located in the first column (or first contiguous rows) of the table.

Microsoft Word does not currently support table header cells not located in the first column cells or in the first contiguous rows. Therefore, creating a custom 'Table Header Cell' style is required before being able to style table with complex header cells.

Age started teleporting regularly versus adrenal stress cause-specific rate ratio (RR) among urban and rural population
Population Age O2 μL/L Adrenal stress
Cases RR
Urban < 20 16.5 127 3.78
20-24 15.2 127 3.17
≥ 25 12.6 96 2.23
Rural < 20 15.1 271 2.91
20-24 13.6 275 2.45
≥ 25 11.8 177 1.63
Mean 14.13 178 2.69
SD 1.77 77.4 0.75

First, create a custom style named Table Header Cell:

  1. On the Home tab of the ribbon, click on the Styes Pane control to reveal the Styles side bar.
  2. In the Styles side bar, click on New Style...

In the New Style dialogue window:

  • Name the style Table Header Cell, and set the Style type to Character (inline).
  • Activate the bold B button in the Formatting section so that table header cell can be seen easily.
  • Click on OK.
create the Table Header Cell style

Apply the newly created style to table header cells:

  1. Insert a new table:

    1. Click where the table should be inserted.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Table.
    3. Select one of the possible options from the drop-down menu to specify the Number of rows and Number of columns of the table.
    insert a table using built in insert table tool
  2. Use the options available in the Table Design tab of the ribbon to specify (when needed):

    • A Header Row (first row).
    • A First Column of header cells.
    • A summary row (last row, labeled Total Row in Microsoft Word).
    • A table design. Grid Table 5 Dark is recommended as it improves the visibility of the table elements (header row, first column, total row) selected.
    select a table design and tick all the required table heading elements
    1. Add the content of the header cells to the table.
    2. Merge cells for headers cells that span multiple rows:

      1. Highlight the cells to be merged.
      2. Click on the Merge cells button in the Layout tab of the ribbon (or right click and select Merge cells).
    add column header data
  3. Extend the header row to the second row:

    1. Select all the rows that need to become part of the extended header rows.
    2. Click on the Repeat header rows button in the Layout tab of the ribbon.
    apply table header style
  4. Style the remaining header cells:

    In the Home tab of the ribbon:

    1. Select any unstyled column header cells and apply the Table Header Cell style.
    2. To improve readability, apply a font color and background shading to the new header cells to match other header cells (here white and grey).
    apply table header style
  5. Add the data.
    apply table header style
  6. If more than one summary row is needed at the end of the table (here the last two rows should be part of the summary rows):

    1. Select the last row in the table body (before the first summary row).
    2. In the Table Design tab of the ribbon:

      • Select the double border line style ().
      • Apply the double border line style to the bottom border only (click on the Borders control and select Bottom border from the drop-down menu).
    apply table header style
  7. A double line border () is now present in the table, separating the summary rows from the rest of the table.

    Optionally, a background shading and font color can be applied to all cells in the summary rows to better differentiate them from the rest of the table:

    1. Select the cells in the summary row to be styled.
    2. In the Home tab of the ribbon, set the font color and background shading to match existing summary row cells (white, and grey here).
    apply table header style
  8. The table is now complete,
    complete table

Figures

Insert figure

When possible, use the TIFF file format over EPS as EPS files often have missing/corrupted fonts, oversized masks, stray points, and boxes, which can result in errors and poor output.

Insert images, pictures, or figures using one of 3 possible options:

    1. As a first option, go to the Insert tab of the ribbon, click on Picture and select Picture from file... from the drop-down menu.
    2. In the new dialogue window, select the image to be inserted.
    Insert a figure using the built-in insert picture tool
  1. As a second option, drag and drop an image file into the document.
    Insert a figure by dragging and dropping an image file into the document
  2. As a third option, copy the image and paste it directly into the document.

Figure caption

Insert figure captions using the built-in Caption feature of Microsoft Word:

    1. Right click on the figure, and select Insert caption... (or go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Caption).
    2. A dialogue window allowing to customize the caption label and content will appear.
    3. When possible, set the caption label (Label) to Figure.

      If a custom label is required (such as 'Photograph', 'Scheme', or 'Slide'), click on the New Label... button, enter the custom label text in the new dialogue window and click on OK to return to the caption dialogue window. The newly created label will now be available from the Label select box in the Caption dialogue window.

    4. Add the caption content (if any) in the Caption field after the pre-populated label and number (e.g., 'Figure 1'). Note that the number is automatically generated and corresponds to the order of appearance of the table in the document.

      The Caption field may truncate the content of a long caption. In this case, click on OK to insert the caption (truncated) and add the remaining text directly from the document (see next step).

    5. Click on OK.
    Select the figure and insert a caption using the insert caption tool
  1. The figure now has a caption.
    The figure caption is added to the figure
  2. To add (or edit) caption content directly from the document:

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the inserted caption and add the required additional caption text.
    2. If the caption text is no longer in the Caption style (for instance if the content was copied and pasted from other content, or a new line was inserted), select the entire caption, and apply the Caption style (see Apply Styles).

    For longer captions, add text to the inserted caption and apply the caption style to the entire caption
  3. Add metadata about the figure (authors, contributors, license, sources, etc.) at the end of the caption following the instructions defined in the the resource metadata section.

    Author: Regal, Brian "Dr. Brian Regal" (Cryptozoology < Kean University - Union, NJ, USA ). Figure from: Wells and Tedford (1995, figure 36) © 1995 American Museum of Natural History, with permission. Data from: Supporting Dataset 2.

    add credit line to the figure caption

Multi-part figure

Use the built-in Picture Grid feature of Microsoft Word to create multi-part figures.

    1. Place the cursor in the document where the multi-part figure needs to be inserted.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon.
    3. Click on the SmartArt icon, select Picture from the drop-down menu and, in the grid of options that appeared, select Picture Grid.
    Picture Grid is selected from the list of options in the SmartArt picture menu
  1. A 2×2 multi-part figure is automatically inserted in the document.

    Click on the + or - icons of the SmartArt Text window to adjust the number of parts required by the multi-part figure. Note that the positioning of the figure does not matter for multi-part figure, only their order.

    To insert the first figure part, click on one of the picture icons in the multi-part figure (or in the SmartArt Text window). Select the image to be inserted from the pop-up Choose a Picture window and click on Insert.

    Upper left figure is clicked inside the automatically inserted 2 X 2 picture grid
  2. The figure is automatically inserted in the multi-part figure.

    When a figure is inserted, Microsoft Word may zoom in on it to fill the whole available space. To change this behavior and guarantee that the entire figure is visible (recommended):

    1. Select the figure in the multi-part figure that needs to be adjusted.
    2. Click on the Picture Format tab on the ribbon.
    3. Click on the Crop icon and select Fit from the drop-down menu. This will adjust the part so that the entire figure is now visible.
    adjust the image to fit in the window
  3. Add short labels for each part of the multi-part figure by filling the text boxes ([ Text ]) located above the figure parts (or in the SmartArt Text window).

    Short labels are used to identify the parts of a multi-part figure. Examples of short labels include single letters (e.g., A, B, C, D), positioning information (e.g., Left profile, Right profile), or any other short identifying information (e.g., Species names).

    Avoid writing long text for short labels and instead, provide additional information about each part of a multi-part figure in the multi-part figure caption (referring to the parts by their short labels).

    Avoid repeating the multi-part figure caption label in the short labels of the parts of a multi-part figure. For instance, if a multi-part figure labeled 'Figure 4' has 2 parts, the parts should be labeled 'A' and 'B' as opposed to 'Figure 4A' and 'Figure 4B'.

    Cursor is placed in the text box above the inserted figure to add a caption
  4. Complete the multi-part figure by adding the remaining parts and short labels.

    Complete picture grid with a four-part figure with captions A, B, C, and D

To create a caption for the multi-part figure:

    1. Select the entire multi-part figure.
    2. Right click on the figure, and select Insert caption... (or go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Caption).
    3. A dialogue window allowing to customize the caption label and content will appear.
    4. When possible, set the caption label (Label) to Figure.

      If a custom label is required (such as 'Photograph', 'Scheme', or 'Slide'), click on the New Label... button, enter the custom label text in the new dialogue window and click on OK to return to the Caption dialogue window. The newly created label will now be available from the Label select box in the Caption dialogue window.

    5. Add the caption content (if any) in the Caption field after the pre-populated label and number (e.g., 'Figure 1'). Note that the number is automatically generated and corresponds to the order of appearance of the table in the document.

      The Caption field may truncate the content of a long caption. In this case, click on OK to insert the caption (truncated) and add the remaining text directly from the document (see next step).

    6. Click on OK.
    Select the entire multi-part figure and insert a caption using the insert caption tool
  1. To add (or edit) caption content directly from the document:

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the inserted caption and add the required additional caption text.
    2. If the caption text is no longer in the Caption style (for instance if the content was copied and pasted from other content, or a new line was inserted), select the entire caption, and apply the Caption style (see Apply Styles).

    The figure caption is added to the multi-part figure
  2. When possible organize the caption text with:

    • A title (or description) for the figure as a whole, followed by resource metadata (authors, contributors, sources etc.) that apply to the multi-part figure as a whole.
    • A title (or description) for each part, each starting with the short label of the part in parenthesis (e.g., (A)) and followed by resource metadata (authors, contributors, sources etc.) specific to the part of the multi-part figure.

    Be sure to format the resource metadata according to the instructions defined in the resource metadata section.

    Dinosaurs. Author: Regal, Brian "Dr. Brian Regal" (Cryptozoology < Kean University - Union, NJ, USA ). (A) Tyronnosaurus rex. (B) Segosaurus. Figure from: Wells and Tedford (1995, figure 36) © 1995 American Museum of Natural History, with permission. (C) Brontosaurus. (D) Pterodactyl.

    add credit line for each part to the figure caption

Equations

Use the built-in equation editor of Microsoft Word.

Inline equation

To insert inline equations (equations that flow with the text and do not require a caption):

    1. Place the cursor where the equation needs to be inserted.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Equation.
    Insert inline equation using the built in insert equation tool
  1. Type the equation using the mathematical symbols and expressions available in the Equation tab of the ribbon.
    edit the equation

Block equation (and caption)

To insert a block equation (with a caption):

    1. Create a new blank line where the equation needs to be inserted.
    2. As for inline equations, go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Equation.
    Insert block equation on new line with insert equation tool
  1. Type the equation using the mathematical symbols and expressions available in the Equation tab of the ribbon.
    Type the equation
  2. Add a caption to the equation:

    1. Select the equation.
    2. Go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Caption.
    3. A dialogue window allowing to customize the caption label and content will appear.
    4. When possible, set the caption label (Label) to Equation.

      If a custom label is required (such as 'Lemma', 'Proof', or 'Theorem'), click on the New Label... button, enter the custom label text in the new dialogue window and click on OK to return to the Caption dialogue window. The newly created label will now be available from the Label select box in the Caption dialogue window.

    5. Add the caption content (if any) in the Caption field after the pre-populated label and number (e.g., 'Equation 1'). Note that the number is automatically generated and corresponds to the order of appearance of the table in the document.

      The Caption field may truncate the content of a long caption. In this case, click on OK to insert the caption (truncated) and add the remaining text directly from the document (see next step).

    6. Click on OK.
    Add a caption using the built-in insert caption tool
  3. Add metadata about the equation (author, contributor, license, sources, etc.) at the end of the caption following the instructions defined in the resource metadata section.

    Author: Sir Francis Galton. License: CC0-1.0.

    add credit line
    1. Be sure to delete any trailing spaces after the caption and any trailing spaces or carriage returns after the equation object.

    2. If the caption text is no longer in the Caption style (for instance if the content was copied and pasted from other content, or a new line was inserted), select the entire caption, and apply the Caption style (see Apply Styles).

    Delete trailing spaces after the equation caption number

Code

Inline code

Create a custom style named Verbatim Char to identify inline code in the document:

  1. On the Home tab of the ribbon, click on the Styes Pane control to reveal the Styles side bar.
  2. In the Styles side bar, click on New Style...

In the New Style dialogue window:

  • Name the style Verbatim Char and set the Style type to Character (inline).
  • Optionally, customize the font and background color:

    • For font type, select a monospaced font (e.g., 'Monaco') in the Formatting section.
    • To set a background color, in the Format drop-down menu select Border. In the new Borders and shading dialogue window, click on the Shading tab and select a background color from the Fill drop-down menu. Click on OK.
  • Confirm the new style creation by clicking on OK in the New Style dialouge window.
Inline code is selected

Apply the newly created Verbatim Char style to inline code in the document.

  1. Select the inline code.
  2. Apply the Verbatim Char style either from the Home tab of the ribbon or from the Styles pane.
The Verbatim Char style is then available in the home banner styles pane and can be applied to other inline code

Short Code blocks

Create a custom Source Code style that can be re-used to identify all the short code snippets (~ 50 line of code) of the document. For longer code blocks, refer to the Supporting Information section.

  1. On the Home tab of the ribbon, click on the Styes Pane control to reveal the Styles side bar.
  2. In the Styles side bar, click on New Style...

In the New Style dialogue window:

  • Name the style Source Code and set the Style type to Paragraph (block).
  • Optionally, customize the font and background color:

    • For font type, select a monospaced font (e.g., 'Monaco' in the Formatting section.
    • To set a background color, in the Format drop-down menu select Border. In the new Borders and shading dialogue window, click on the Shading tab and select a background color from the Fill drop-down menu. Click on OK.
  • Confirm the new style creation by clicking on OK in the New Style dialogue window.
A new Source Code style is created from the Styles pane and applied to the code block

Apply the newly created Source Code style to short code blocks in the document.

  1. Select the short code block.
  2. Apply the Source Code style either from the Home tab of the ribbon or from the Styles pane.
The source code style is then available in the home banner styles pane and can be applied to other code blocks

Add a caption with a custom label to the short code blocks.

    1. Select the code block and go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Caption. A new Caption dialogue window will appear.
    2. First, create a custom caption label (e.g., 'Code') for code blocks. Click on the New Label button, enter the custom label text (e.g., 'Code') in the new dialogue window and click on OK to return to the caption dialogue window. The newly created label will now be available from the Label select box in the Caption dialogue window.
    3. Add the caption content (if any) in the Caption field after the pre-populated label and number (e.g., 'Code 1'). Note that the number is automatically generated and corresponds to the order of appearance of the table in the document.

      The Caption field may truncate the content of a long caption. In this case, click on OK to insert the caption (truncated) and add the remaining text directly from the document (see next step).

    4. Click on OK.
    Create a new label for code blocks
  1. The code block now has a caption.

    To add (or edit) caption content directly from the document:

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the inserted caption and add the required additional caption text.
    2. If the caption text is no longer in the Caption style (for instance if the content was copied and pasted from other content, or a new line was inserted), select the entire caption, and apply the Caption style (see Apply Styles).

    Type 'Code' as the new label
  2. Add metadata about the short code block (authors, contributors, license, sources, etc.) at the end of the caption following the instructions defined in the resource metadata section.

    Author: Brendan Eich. License: MIT.

    The new label and number, 'Code 1', automatically appear in the caption box

Text boxes

Text boxes are often used to provide background information or a high level summary for readers. Add text boxes using the built-in Text Box feature of Microsoft Word.

Insert text boxes

    1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon, click on Text Box and select Draw Text Box from the drop-down menu.
    2. Click and drag the cursor to draw a text box in the document. Surrounding content will automatically reflow around the text box. The height and width of the text box can be adjusted at any time.
    A text box is inserted using the built-in Insert Text Box tool
  1. Type text into the text box and add any relevant figures, equations, tables, or short code snippets using the methods described above.
    Text is added to the text box

Text box captions

Add a caption with a custom label to text boxes.

    1. Select the whole text box, go to the References tab of the ribbon and click on Insert Caption. A Caption dialogue window will appear.
    2. Create a custom caption label (e.g., 'Text Box') for text boxes. Click on the New Label... button, enter the custom label text (e.g., 'Text Box') in the new dialogue window and click on OK to return to the caption dialogue window. The newly created label will now be available from the Label select box in the Caption dialogue window.
    3. Add the caption content (if any) in the Caption field after the pre-populated label and number (e.g., 'Text Box 1'). Note that the number is automatically generated and corresponds to the order of appearance of the table in the document.

      The Caption field may truncate the content of a long caption. In this case, click on OK to insert the caption (truncated) and add the remaining text directly from the document (see next step).

    4. Click on OK.
    The contents of the text box are selected and the New Label button in the built-in Insert caption tool is selected
  1. The Text Box now has a caption.

    To add (or edit) caption content directly from the document:

    1. Place the cursor at the end of the inserted caption and add the required additional caption text.
    2. If the caption text is no longer in the Caption style (for instance if the content was copied and pasted from other content, or a new line was inserted), select the entire caption, and apply the Caption style (see Apply Styles).

    A new label called 'Text Box' is typed into the New Label dialogue window
  2. Add metadata about the text box (authors, contributors, license, sources, etc.) at the end of the caption following the instructions defined in the resource metadata section.

    From: Barnet (2013, 65) © 2013 Anthem Press, with permission.

    add credit line to text box caption

Resource Metadata

Add resource (figure, table, dataset, etc.) metadata (authors, contributors, license, copyright, sources, adaptation and reproduction permissions) at the end of the resource captions.

Resource authors and contributors

  1. List the authors of the resource at the end of the caption.

    1. Start the authors statement with 'Authors:'
    2. List each author (person or organization):

      • If the author has been bookmarked, cross-reference the corresponding display name:

        1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
        2. Set Reference type to Bookmark and Insert reference to to bookmark text. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
        3. Under For which bookmark, select the name of the bookmark corresponding to the author and click on Insert to insert it in the document.
      • If the author is not part of the list of authors or contributors of the document (and therefore hasn't been bookmarked), specify the author using the person or organization format. When possible, be sure to hyperlink authors to their personal websites or ORCID profiles and organizations their URLs.
    3. Separate multiple authors with semicolons (;).

    Authors: Prof. James P Sullivan, MD.

    add 'Authors:' followed by cross-references to authors' display names to the figure citation
  2. Specify the authors affiliations as indicated by the affiliated person format.

    1. List affiliations in parentheses () after the author information and use semicolons (;) to separate multiple affiliations.
      • If an affiliation has been bookmarked, cross-reference it (be sure to understand the semantic of affiliation bookmarks):

        1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
        2. Set Reference type to Bookmark and Insert reference to to Bookmark text. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
        3. Under For which bookmark, select the name of the bookmark corresponding to the affiliation and click on Insert to insert it in the document.
      • If the affiliation is not part of the list of affiliations of the document (and therefore hasn't been bookmarked), specify the affiliation using the organization format. When possible, be sure to hyperlink affiliations to their URLs.
    2. Terminate the author statement with a dot (.).

    Authors: Prof. James P Sullivan, MD (NYU).

    add affiliations using cross-reference tool
  3. Add contact information (email, social media profile, telephone, fax, and address) in a footnote, following the contact format (as detailed in the contact information section).

    When possible, hyperlink the contact information (email address, social media profiles, etc.).

    1 Email:james@nyu.edu. GitHub: jsullivan.

    add footnote with corresponding contact information
  4. Specify author contributions in footnotes (as detailed in the author contributions section).

    • 2 Collected the data
    • 3 Prepared the figure
    • 4 Digitalized the dataset
    • 5 Designed the experiment
    • 6 Performed the experiment
    add footnote with author contributions
  5. List secondary contributors (if any) after the authors in the same way as defined for authors, but starting with 'Contributors:'.

    Contributors: Douglas Carl Engelbart.

    add contributing author info

Resource license

  1. Start the resource license statement with 'License:' followed by the license name or identifier.

    When possible pick the license identifier from the SPDX list of license IDs. If no valid identifier can be found, use the license name.

    In case of multiple licenses, separate them with semicolons (;).

  2. Hyperlink the license identifier (or name).
  3. Terminate the license statement with a dot (.).

License: CC0-BY-4.0.

Add 'License:' followed by the resource license, 'CC0-BY-4.0' here and License: CC0-BY-4.0

Resource sources and permissions

List the sources (such as dataset, code) and permissions of the resource at the end of the caption following the resource sources and permissions format defined below.

Reproduced from: Regal (2010, figure 6) © 2010 New York University, with permission. Code from: Supporting Code 1 ; Guerin and Lowe (2015). Data from: Botta, Moat, and Preis (2015); Supporting Dataset 1. Figure courtesy of: Regal, Brian "Dr. Brian Regal".

Insert citations according to the guidelines of the citations section being sure to include references to the relevant section, figure, equation, etc. in the citation (pinpoint citation).

add resource sources and credits

Funding

Place all funding information in a separate 'Funding' section, rather than including it in the 'Acknowledgements' section or elsewhere in the document. To include funding source information:

  1. Create a new section with a heading (Heading 2 style) named: 'Funding'.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the Funding section heading
  2. Create a bulleted list.

    The bulleted list will contain source of funding for the work, the authors and contributors, and the organizations listed as affiliations.

    Include one source of funding per list item, following the funding format defined below.

    If it is not possible to follow the funding format, include each source of funding (in any format) as a separate list item in a bulleted list. Note, a source of funding can include multiple organizations and awards, granted to multiple recipients.

    create a bulleted list that will receive the funding information

Funding attributed to the work

For funding attributed to the work:

  1. Add one entry per funding source (note that a funding source can come from multiple organizations) according to the funding format defined above.

    The work was funded by: Collaborative systems < Division of Information & Intelligent Systems (IIS)< National Science Foundation (NSF) / award number 0553202 "SGER: First Stages of Exploratory Development of HyperScope".

    Add funding sources attributed to the work
  2. When possible, create a hyperlink for each funding organization and award / grant / project:

    1. Highlight the text to be hyperlinked.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    3. Enter the URL in the Address input.
    4. Click on OK.
    Funding source organization names and award are hyperlinked to URLs using the built-in insert hyperlink tool

Funding attributed to part of the work

For funding attributed to part of the work:

  1. Specify the subjects of the funding statement by inserting the caption labels of the relevant part of the work with the built-in Cross-reference feature of Microsoft Word.

    1. Ensure that the parts of the work have a caption so that they can be cross-referenced.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. Select the Reference type corresponding to the part of the work and set Insert reference to to Only label and number.
    4. Select the caption to be inserted as the subject of the funding statement.
    5. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked to quickly navigate to the original location of the resource.

    Supporting Dataset 1

    Add funding sources attributed to the part of the work
  2. Fill in the rest of the funding statement according to the funding format.

    Supporting Dataset 1 was funded by: Science and Technology Directorate < Department of Homeland Security (DHS) / contract HSHQDC-12-C-00058.

    Add funding sources attributed to the part of the work
  3. Create a hyperlink for each funding source and award / grant / project when possible:

    1. Highlight the text to be hyperlinked.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    3. Enter the URL in the Address input.
    4. Click on OK.
    Funding source organization names and award are hyperlinked to URLs using the built-in insert hyperlink tool

Funding attributed to persons

For funding attributed to persons (authors or contributors):

    1. Ensure that the persons (from the authors and contributors list) have been bookmarked so that they can be cross-referenced.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and select Cross-reference.
    3. Set Reference type to Bookmark and Insert reference to to Bookmark text. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
    4. Under For which bookmark select the name of the bookmark corresponding to the person (author or contributor) that needs to be inserted as the subject of the funding statement and click on Insert.
    5. The bookmarked text corresponding to the selected bookmark label is inserted in the document.

      Prof. James P Sullivan, MD

    Insert a person or organization as a subject of a funding sources with the insert cross-reference tool
  1. Fill in the rest of the funding statement according to the funding format defined above.

    Prof. James P Sullivan, MD; Douglas Carl Engelbart were supported by: RAPIDD program < Science and Technology Directorate < Department of Homeland Security; Fogarty International Center < National Institute of Health (NIH).

    Fill out the rest of the funding statement example
  2. Create a hyperlink for each funding source and award / grant / project when possible:

    1. Highlight the text to be hyperlinked.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    3. Enter the URL in the Address input.
    4. Click on OK.
    Funding source organization names and award are hyperlinked to URLs using the built-in insert hyperlink tool

Funding attributed to organizations

For funding attributed to organizations (from the authors, contributors, or affiliations list):

    1. Ensure that the organizations (from the authors, contributors, or affiliations lists) have been bookmarked so that they can be cross-referenced.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    3. Set Reference type to bookmark and Insert reference to to Bookmark text. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
    4. Under For which bookmark select the label of the bookmark corresponding to the organization that needs to be inserted as the subject of the funding statement and click on Insert.
    5. The bookmarked text corresponding to the selected bookmark label is inserted in the document.

      NYU

    Insert a person or organization as a subject of a funding sources with the insert cross-reference tool
  1. Fill in the rest of the funding statement according to the funding format defined above.

    NYU received funding from: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation / Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery Grant (CAVD), OPP38631_01.

    Fill in the rest of the funding statement
  2. Create a hyperlink for each funding source and award / grant / project when possible:

    1. Highlight the text to be hyperlinked.
    2. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Hyperlink.
    3. Enter the URL in the Address input.
    4. Click on OK.
    Funding source organization names and award are hyperlinked to URLs using the built-in insert hyperlink tool

Acknowledgements

List all acknowledgements (e.g., thanking reviewers) in a separate 'Acknowledgements' section.

  1. Create a new section named 'Acknowledgements' (Heading 2).
    Apply heading 2 style to the new section heading 'Acknowledgements'
  2. Create a bulleted list.

    The bulleted list will contain acknowledgement statements following the acknowledgements format defined below.

    Include one acknowledgement statement per type of predicate (e.g., 'acknowledge' or 'acknowledge the editorial review work of').

    If it is not possible to follow the acknowledgements format, include each acknowledgement (in any format) as a separate list item in a bulleted list. Include one acknowledgement statement per clause describing a relationship between the subjects and objects of the statement (e.g., 'acknowledge' or 'acknowledge the editorial review work of').

    create a bulleted list that will receive the acknowledgements statments
  3. Enter the subject(s) of the acknowledgement statement, by inserting the bookmarked author and contributor 'display name' or organization identifiers using the built-in Cross-refrence feature of Microsoft Word.

    1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    2. Set Reference type to bookmark and Insert reference to to Bookmark text. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
    3. Under For which bookmark select the relevant bookmark label and click on Insert.
    4. The bookmarked text corresponding to the selected bookmark label is inserted in the document.

    Note that the words 'The authors', 'The contributors', 'The authors and contributors' (or their singular versions) can be used as valid subjects instead of the full list of the work's authors and contributors.

    insert a cross reference to the author name as the subject of an acknowledgements statement
  4. Fill in the rest of the acknowledgements statement according to the acknowledgements format described above.

    Douglas Carl Engelbart is thankful for the pioneering contribution of: Bush, Vannevar "Vannevar Bush".

    acknowledgements statement is inserted
  5. Hyperlink the objects of the acknowledgement statements.
    hyperlink

Disclosure

List all disclosure information (such as conflict of interest or competing interest) in a separate 'Disclosure' section.

  1. Create a new section named 'Disclosure' (Heading 2).
    Apply heading 2 style to the new section heading 'Disclosure'
  2. Create a bulleted list.

    The bulleted list will contain disclosure statements following the disclosure format defined below.

    Include one disclosure statement per type of predicate (e.g., 'received funding', 'was employed by', 'own patent', 'is editor of').

    If disclosures cannot be described using the disclosure format, include each disclosure (in any format) as a separate list item in a bulleted list. Include one disclosure statement per clause describing a relationship between the subjects and objects of the statement (e.g., 'received funding', 'was employed by', 'own patent', 'is editor of').

    create a bulleted list that will receive the disclosure statments
  3. Start each disclosure statement by inserting bookmarked author and contributor 'display name' or organization identifiers (the 'subjects') using the built in Cross-reference feature of Microsoft Word.

    1. Go to the Insert tab of the ribbon and click on Cross-reference.
    2. Set Reference type to bookmark and Insert reference to to Bookmark text. Make sure to leave the Insert as hyperlink option checked.
    3. Under For which bookmark select the relevant bookmark label and click on Insert.
    4. The bookmarked text corresponding to the selected bookmark label is inserted in the document.
    insert a cross reference to the author name in the first bullet point of the disclosure list
  4. Fill in the rest of the disclosure statement according to the disclosure format defined above.

    Prof. James P Sullivan, MD received personal fees for consulting for: Pfizer Inc - New York, NY, USA.

    fill in the rest of the disclosure statement
  5. Hyperlink the 'objects' of the disclosure statement.
    Hyperlink the object of the disclosure statement, Pfizer

Supporting Information

  1. Create a new section (Heading 2 style) named: 'Supporting Information' typically right above the 'Bibliography' (or 'Works Cited') section.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the Supporting Information section heading
    1. Organize the 'Supporting Information' section using sub-sections and headings.
    2. Insert supporting tables, figures, equations, text boxes, code blocks, links to local files, and links to resources created as part of this work but hosted in external registries or databases in the Supporting Information text.
    3. Cross-reference or hyperlink the supporting information resources (figure, table, dataset, etc.) or headings so that the supporting information is deeply linked with the main text.
    Heading style 2 is applied to the Supporting Information section heading

Additional tables, figures, equations, text boxes, and code blocks

Add supporting tables, figures, equations, text boxes, and code blocks directly to the 'Supporting Information' text or section, following the same instructions as for inserting figures, equations, tables or short code snippets. When possible, use the following custom captions labels:

Resource type Label
Table Supporting Table
Figure Supporting Figure
Code Supporting Code
Equation Supporting Equation
Text Box Supporting Text Box

Add metadata for the resource (authors and contributors, sources and permissions, license) at the end of the caption, following the instructions of the resource metadata section.

Supporting Table 1. Analysis of social linking. Authors: Douglas Carl Engelbart. License: CC0-1.0. Code from: Supporting Code 1. Data from: Supporting Dataset 1.

A supporting table

Local files

Specify the local files (such as dataset, code, audio, video) that are relevant to the manuscript.

  1. Create a hyperlink to the local file:

    1. In the Insert tab of the ribbon, click on Hyperlink
    2. In the new Insert Hyperlink dialogue window, click on Select... in the Web Page or File tab.
    3. Choose the desired file and click on OK

    A path to the file is inserted in the document.

    Moving the file will break the link as the file is simply linked to the document and not embedded in it. Links must be regenerated (or edited) each time the file path changes.

    add URL of local files and hyperlink
  2. Add a caption to the file URL to describe the file content and provide metadata about the resource.

    1. Select the file URL.
    2. Create the caption (in the References tab of the ribbon, click on Insert Caption). When possible use a custom label (click on New Label... in the Caption dialogue window) starting with the word 'Supporting' followed by the type of the supporting information (e.g., Supporting Dataset, Supporting Video, etc.).
    3. Add metadata (authors and contributors, sources and permissions, license) at the end of the caption, following the instructions of the resource metadata section.

    Supporting Video 1. Computer Demonstration. Authors: Douglas Carl Engelbart. License: CC0-BY-4.0.

    add caption to local files

External resources

Provide URLs for any resources created as part of this work and hosted in external registries or databases (e.g., GitHub, Dryad, GenBank).

  1. Create a hyperlink to the URL of the external resources:

    1. In the Insert tab of the ribbon, click on Hyperlink
    2. In the new Insert Hyperlink dialogue window, specify the URL in the Address field.
    3. Click on OK.
    Add URL (hyperlinked)
  2. Add a caption to the URL to describe the URL content and provide metadata about the resource.

    1. Select the URL.
    2. Create the caption (in the References tab of the ribbon, click on Insert Caption). When possible use a custom label (click on New Label... in the Caption dialogue window) starting with the word 'Supporting' followed by the type of the supporting information (e.g., Supporting Dataset, Supporting Video, etc.).
    3. Add metadata (authors and contributors, sources and permissions, license) at the end of the caption, following the instructions of the resource metadata section.

    Supporting Dataset 1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae TCP1-beta gene. Author: Prof. James Sullivan, MD. Contributor: Douglas Carl Engelbart. License: CC0-1.0.

    Add caption to the URL

Citations

Citations of creative works (books, articles, websites, datasets, etc.), authorities (cases, statutes, rules, etc.), or entities (genetic sequences, proteins, chemicals, etc.) can be inserted inline in the text, as footnotes or endnotes, and/or in a dedicated section (named 'References', 'Bibliography' or 'Works Cited').

Citations must be inserted using either:

The Chicago Manual of Style is recommended to style citations over other guidelines (e.g., APA, MLA, Vancouver) as:

  • The Chicago Manual of Style contains guidelines for citation as notes (footnotes and/or endnotes) and bibliography as well as for citations following the author-date reference system.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style usually results in citations containing more metadata (more authors etc.) than any other citation format.

Adding citations using the built-in bibliography feature of Microsoft Word

The Bibliography feature of Microsoft Word provides a convenient way to organize a bibliography, automatically format citations, and guarantee that each shortened version of a citation is properly linked to its long version.

Authors needing more flexibility than what the built-in Bibliography feature of Microsoft Word allows (or preferring entering references manually) should skip to the 'adding citations using bookmarks and hyperlinks' or 'adding citations using hyperlinks and screentips' sections.

Insert citations from a new source
  1. Set the bibliography style to Chicago Manual of Style (recommended):

    1. Go to the References tab of the ribbon.
    2. Set Bibliography Style to Chicago.
    The citations button in the Reference tab of the banner is clicked
    1. Place the cursor where a citation needs to be inserted.
    2. Click on Insert Citation
    3. Fill in the source information, starting with the Type of Source.

      Be sure to include author information in the format prompted by Microsoft Word when adding source information (for instance for Author, enter the family name followed by a comma (,) followed by the given name, followed by any additional names).

      If a citation contains several authors, separate them by a semicolon (;), or click on the Edit... button and add more authors by clicking on the + button.

      Use the Standard number field to add identifiers such as DOIs or ISBNs.

      If a URL is known for the citation but the Type of Source corresponding to the source does not contain a URL enter the URL in the Comments field.

      If no appropriate Type of Source can be found, select the Miscellaneous style. Fill in as much relevant fields as possible and provide the long form of the citation (including any relevant URL) in the Comments field (formatted according the guidelines of the Chicago Manual of Style).

    4. Click on OK, the bibliography now has a new entry.
    The chicago citation style is selected in the citations window that appears
  2. A reference to the citation is now inserted in the citation source manager and a specific instance of the citation is inserted in the text.

    (Smith & Doe, 2014)

    If a citation is inserted in a footnote, Microsoft Word may automatically convert it into plain text, loosing the benefit of using the built-in Bibliography feature. To prevent this behavior, insert the citation in the text (not in the footnote) first, copy it, and then paste it in the footnote.

    The citation appears in the text where the cursor was located
  3. Once inserted, the reference text can be modified to suppress the author, year, or title from being displayed or to display a pinpoint citation (e.g., citation to specific pages, sections, or resources):

    1. Click on the citation.
    2. Click on the arrow on the right (or right click) to access a drop-down menu and select Edit this citation.
    3. Check the box next to author, year, or title to supress it from being displayed and enter pinpoint citation information after the pages label.

    Note, any modifications made only apply to this instance of the citation and do not impact the citation stored in the citation source manager (or any other reference to that source).

    Modifying the instance citation to add page numbers
Insert citations from an existing source
    1. Go to the References tab of the ribbon.
    2. Click on Citations.
    With the citation window open, an existing source is added to the text by double clicking it
  1. A side menu containing the list of sources relevant to the document is now available.

    Double click on the source to be cited to insert it in the text.

    (Smith & Doe, 2014)

    If a citation is inserted in a footnote, Microsoft Word may automatically convert it into text, loosing the benefit of using the built-in Bibliography feature. To prevent this behavior, insert the citation in the text first, copy it, and then paste it in the footnote.

    To expand the inserted reference '(Smith & Doe, 2014)' with additional references, e.g., '(Smith & Doe, 2014; Sullivan, 2015)', click on the inserted citation in the document and then insert another citation.

    If the document includes multiple citations sharing the same first author and years, additional authors and/or the publication title will also be included in the inserted citation (along with the first author and year). This is an expected behavior and makes it possible to differentiate between multiple citations sharing the same first authors and years.

    With the citation window open, add a second existing source is added to the text by double clicking it
  2. Once inserted, the reference text can be modified to suppress the author, year, or title from being displayed or to display a pinpoint citation (e.g., citation to specific pages, sections, or resources):

    1. Click on the citation.
    2. Click on the arrow on the right (or right click) to access a drop-down menu and select Edit this citation.
    3. Check the box next to author, year, or title to supress it from being displayed and enter pinpoint citation information after the pages label.

    Note, any modifications made only apply to this instance of the citation and do not impact the citation stored in the citation source manager (or any other reference to that source).

    The citation appears in the text where the cursor was located
Add bibliography section
  1. Go to the References tab of the ribbon.
  2. Place the cursor at the end of the document, where the Bibliography should be inserted.
  3. Click on Bibliography and select the desired option from the drop-down menu.
Works cited is selected from the bibliography button on the Reference banner
A bibliography will be inserted, using the bibliography style specified (Chicago here).
A works cited section is automatically generated at the end of the document
Managing citation sources

Citation sources can be imported from other documents, added from scratch (without being inserted in the text), edited, or deleted.

To manage citation sources:

  1. Go to the References tab of the ribbon.
  2. Click on Citations to open the citations side bar.
  3. Click on the settings menu icon in the bottom right corner and select citation source manager... from the drop-down menu.
  4. A new dialogue window will appear allowing to add, import, delete, or edit citation sources.
insert list of references

FAQ

How many style guides were reviewed before writing 'DOCX Standard Scientific Style' (DS3)

In order to be as complete as possible, a searchable database of style guides (Style Guide DB) was developed before writing DS3. The full list of indexed style guides can be found here, as well as some intriguing statistics.

Why does a DOCX file need to be structured by humans? Can't machines just do it?

State of the art methods for automatically detecting elements of scientific manuscripts such as titles, authors, abstracts, and dates are currently between 60% and 92% accurate (Lipinski et al 2013). Human assistance is therefore needed to have access to accurate, reliable structured data.

Can structuring a DOCX file really result in better discoverability of the content?

Yes. By first structuring the DOCX file, it can then be converted into valid HTML containing rich schema.org markup. Publishing information on the web with structured, semantic markup understood by search engines (schema.org) has proven to increase click-through rates and discoverability by up to 52% (New York Times).

Will structuring a DOCX file help bring the star trek computer to life?

Yes. Publishing science in HTML using schema.org is the first step. The best applications are yet to come.

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Version

DOCX Standard Scientific Style Guide (DS3) follows Semantic Versioning.

License

This guide is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. If you would like to use this material to create your own styleguide, please contact us at contact@standardanalytics.io.